The last two decades have seen a rapid increase in barrier removals on rivers of the Northern Hemisphere, often for the explicit purpose of expanding the abundance, spatial distribution, and life history diversity of migratory fishes. However, differences in life history such as seasonal timing of migration and reproduction, iteroparity versus semelparity, and the extent of natal homing are likely to affect the capacity
for expansion and re-colonization by taxa such as alosines, lamprey, and salmonids. We first review some basic life history traits that may affect re-colonization by migratory fishes, and then present selected examples from Atlantic and Pacific basins to illustrate these patterns and their implications for the success of barrier removal as a measure to advance the goal of fish conservation.We conclude that diadromous fishes have
the capacity to rapidly re-colonize newly available habitats, though the life history patterns of each species, the proximity to source populations in the same or nearby river systems, and the diversity of habitats available may control the patterns and rates of recolonization.